Spinal Injuries/Conditions



  • Acute lower back (lumbar) pain due to spinal disc and/or facet joint injuries
  • Chronic low back (lumbar) pain
  • Sciatica – referred pain and symptoms into the lower limb
  • Pelvic dysfunction syndromes . Often diagnosed in patients who feel ‘out’.
  • Lumbo-pelvic instability
  • Childbirth related instability and acute pain syndromes of the lower back and pelvis
  • Spondylolisthesis (forward slip of one vertebrae on the vertebrae directly below it)
  • Spondylosis (disc space narrowing combined with degenerative changes in the facet joints common with age)
  • Acute neck pain due to facet joint and/or spinal disc injury
  • Chronic neck pain
  • Brachialgia-referred pain and symptoms into the arm, ‘pinched nerve’ pain and/or pins and needles/numbness (known as paraesthesia)
  • Mid-back (thoracic) and rib (costovertebral joint) pain (which, in some cases, refer pain around the chest wall)
  • Acute/chronic (myofascial) trigger point conditions. (These are tender and hypersensitive coin sized zones within the muscle tissue that can cause local pain and tightness and can also refer to distant sites.)
  • Muscle and joint stiffness


Acute and chronic spinal pain is experienced due to the stimulation, via mechanical or chemical irritation, of small nerve endings, nerve root or spinal cord sheaths, nerve cords, complex pain mechanisms in the central nervous system or a combination of the above.


Spinal Disc(s)

This can involve findings of bulging disc, disc protrusion or disc prolapse/rupture. Disc problems are very common in the lower back (lumbar spine). They are often associated with episodes of bending, bend with twist or prolonged sitting /driving which distorts the rim of the disc causing acute pain. In addition it can produce pressure on the spinal nerves in the lower back which produce symptoms known as sciatica. This is felt as pain, pins and needles sensation, numbness and/or weakness in the leg(s). In the neck (cervical spine), disc injuries can cause debilitating pain into the neck and commonly severe pain into the arm called brachialgia due to compression of the spinal nerves in the neck. This is commonly referred to as ‘pinched nerve’.

Facet Joint(s)

These joints are small joints which flank the disc on either side and behind the spinal discs. They are like a finger joint in their structure and when injured swell and inflame and cause acute pain and restriction of movement. They can be sprained in an injury or activities involving twisting, arching and reaching upward movements. In the neck they can become overstrained by an awkward night’s sleep leading to a condition known as ‘Acute Wry Neck’. They can cause local pain and also refer pain to neighbouring and even distant sites.

Pelvic Joints

The joints of the pelvis can suffer acute injuries through high force trauma such as motor vehicle/bicycle accidents, contact sports, slips and falls on to the ground/floor, landing from a height, or when the female pelvis is vulnerable before and after childbirth. Injury and acute instability syndromes can occur which involve the sacroiliac and pubic joints. Lumbo-pelvic dysfunction conditions are common in the sporting population. Muscle imbalance, asymmetrical posture and structural alignment, as well as poor activation and stabilising strength (core control) can create syndromes such as chronic back pain, Osteitis Pubis (OP), recurrent hamstring strains, and contribute to a range of soft tissue injuries/conditions in the lower body.

Myofascial Pain

This refers to the soft tissue layer involving the muscles, tendons and fascial tissues. This can be injured acutely and cause local pain at the site of injury but can also be responsible for ache and pain at distant sites. Myofascial pain is often associated with damage to deeper joint structures, namely disc and facet joints as either a primary (injured tissue) and/or secondary (protective spasm) component of the acute injury.


may also be generated by the aftermath of acute injuries that have not fully resolved. However it also occurs from chronic over-strain of joints and soft tissues related to extremes of physical strain. This may be due to

  • sedentary desk bound professions involving static posture
  • computer based strain
  • constant heavy lifting and manual handling tasks
  • repetitive movements
  • training errors and overload in athletic and fitness pursuits
  • muscle imbalance
  • poor core control
  • poor physical fitness
  • psychological stress and exhaustion
  • the effects of degenerative changes due to age and previous injuries

See Treatments and Services for methods and tools we employ to treat spinal injuries & conditions.